Understanding Biomimicry: Definition and Examples

  • Billy Cobb
  • Jun 17, 2023
Understanding Biomimicry: Definition and Examples

How Does Biomimicry Work?

Biomimicry is a process of observing and understanding nature’s patterns, processes, and structures, and then adapting and applying them to solve human problems. It involves studying living organisms, ecosystems, and natural phenomena to create innovative solutions that work with, rather than against, the natural world.

Biomimicry can be applied in various fields, such as design, engineering, architecture, medicine, and agriculture. It’s a multidisciplinary approach that draws upon biology, engineering, materials science, chemistry, mathematics, and other disciplines.

The biomimicry process typically involves five stages:

  • Identify the problem. This involves defining the challenge or opportunity that needs to be addressed. It could be related to sustainability, energy efficiency, resource conservation, waste reduction, or other areas.
  • Research and observe nature. In this stage, scientists and designers study natural organisms and systems that are relevant to the problem at hand. They analyze the structure, function, behavior, and interactions of these systems to gain insights and inspiration.
  • Translate insights into design principles. Based on the observations and analysis, designers and scientists distill the key concepts and principles that are critical to the natural system’s success. These principles could be related to form, function, materials, processes, or other attributes.
  • Apply principles to design. With the design principles in mind, scientists and designers create solutions that mimic or incorporate nature’s patterns and processes. This could involve developing new materials, products, systems, or technology.
  • Evaluate and improve. Finally, the solutions are tested and refined to ensure that they meet the desired goals and are sustainable, efficient, and effective. The feedback loop continues as designers and scientists refine their understanding of nature and continue to improve their designs.

Biomimicry is a powerful tool that can help us address some of the most pressing challenges we face. By learning from and working with nature, we can create solutions that are not only innovative and effective but also sustainable and regenerative.

Why is Biomimicry Important?

Biomimicry is an innovative approach that draws inspiration from nature to create sustainable solutions for human challenges. The concept is based on the idea that nature has undergone billions of years of evolution to develop design solutions that are not only practical but also efficient and sustainable.

The application of biomimicry has a range of benefits, both for the planet and for businesses that want to reduce their environmental impact. In this article, we explore the reasons why biomimicry is so important.


This is one of the most significant benefits of biomimicry. The Earth’s ecosystems have been designed to be perfectly balanced and sustainable. By mimicking these structures and processes, we can create sustainable products, buildings, and systems. For instance, buildings designed using biomimicry principles, such as the Eastgate building in Zimbabwe, have lower energy consumption and require less cooling due to their natural ventilation system.

Biomimicry can also be used to solve broader sustainability challenges such as renewable energy generation, sustainable agriculture, and waste reduction. For example, scientists have studied how the leaves of the sweet wormwood plant produce artemisinin, a potent drug used to treat malaria, and developed a method to produce it sustainably.


Biomimicry is a source of innovation and can spark creativity in problem-solving. Nature has solved some of the most complex problems, such as efficient transport, communication, and resource utilization, through adaptation and evolution. By studying these solutions, we can develop new technologies, products, and systems.

For instance, studies on the morphology and structure of the kingfisher’s beak have led to the development of the Shinkansen train in Japan, known for its high speed and low noise. The train’s design is based on the beak’s ability to dive silently into water.

Increased Profitability

Biomimicry can help businesses reduce costs and increase profitability. By designing products and processes that are more sustainable, companies can reduce their environmental impact and carbon footprint, leading to significant cost savings in the long run. The use of biomimicry can also increase product efficiency and improve customer satisfaction, leading to increased profitability.

For instance, by studying the way humpback whales move, the wind turbine company WhalePower developed a turbine blade that is more aerodynamic and efficient, leading to lower production costs and higher energy output.


Biomimicry has a range of benefits for the planet and businesses. From sustainability and innovation to increased profitability, the application of biomimicry can lead to lasting solutions to pressing problems. By harnessing the power of nature, we can create a more sustainable and efficient world for future generations.

Examples of Biomimicry in Action

Biomimicry, in simple terms, is the art of looking to nature for inspiration in problem-solving. This approach is not new as nature has always been a source of innovative ideas. However, in the last few years, biomimicry has become a buzzword in various disciplines, including architecture, engineering, and design.

With the advancement of science and technology, experts have been able to study nature’s patterns and work on replicating them. This has led to the creation of innovative technologies, designs, and materials that are more efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective than conventional solutions.

Here are three examples of biomimicry in action:

1. Solar Panels

Solar panels are one of the most popular forms of renewable energy. They convert sunlight into electricity, reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. However, traditional solar panels have a limited efficiency rate, with only 15-20% of the Sun’s energy being converted into usable electricity.

Inspired by the way leaves absorb sunlight, researchers have developed biomimetic solar panels. These panels mimic the way leaves collect sunlight, using a biomimetic dye that captures a broad spectrum of light, increasing the efficiency of the solar cells. Biomimetic solar panels have a 40-50% efficiency rate, making them twice as effective as traditional solar panels.

2. Buildings

Buildings account for 36% of global energy use and 39% of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, architects and designers are turning to biomimicry to develop buildings that are more energy-efficient and sustainable.

The Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe, is a well-known example of biomimetic architecture. The building is modeled after termite mounds, which maintain a constant temperature of 86 degrees Fahrenheit, despite external temperatures ranging from 35 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The Eastgate Centre uses passive cooling systems that regulate the interior temperature, reducing energy usage by up to 90% compared to traditional buildings.

3. Materials

Materials science is constantly evolving, and designers and engineers are always on the lookout for new, durable materials that can withstand harsh conditions and last for years.

Spiders are known for producing one of the strongest materials on Earth: spider silk. Inspired by spider silk’s strength and durability, researchers have developed synthetic spider silk. These materials have the potential to replace conventional synthetic materials like Kevlar and nylon, which are not biodegradable and cannot be recycled.

Biomimicry has also led to the development of self-healing materials, which have the ability to repair themselves after sustaining damage. These materials replicate the natural healing process of plants and animals, making them ideal for use in construction, transportation, and other industries where durability is crucial.

Overall, biomimicry is a promising approach to problem-solving that can lead to more sustainable and efficient technologies, designs, and materials. By looking to nature, we can find innovative solutions to some of the world’s most pressing challenges.

The Three Principles of Biomimicry

Biomimicry is defined as the practice of learning from and using natural design and function to solve human problems. Janine Benyus, the co-founder of the Biomimicry Institute, developed the idea of the three principles of biomimicry which are emulate, embrace, and regenerate. These principles guide the practice of biomimicry, allowing it to remain in line with nature, and sustainable.


Emulate is the first principle of biomimicry. It focuses on studying and imitating nature’s patterns, processes, and systems in the design phase. This process allows humans to discover innovative ideas that work with nature rather than against it. By imitating natural systems, designers can create sustainable products and services that mimic the resilience and efficiency found in nature.

For example, if a designer wants to create a new form of wind turbine, they’ll look to birds to see how they adjust their wings to prevent turbulence. This allows the bird to fly with ease. The designer can use this information to create a more efficient turbine that can withstand harsh winds. Emulating nature in the design phase ensures that the product or service is well-suited for its purpose and remains sustainable in the long run.


The second principle of biomimicry is embrace. This principle encourages humans to work in harmony with nature and not against it. Following this principle means that we must consider how our actions affect the environment and the ecosystems we’re a part of.

Embracing nature requires a shift in how we think about creating products and services. Rather than seeing nature as a resource to be exploited, we must understand that it’s a system that provides us with resources to be used in a sustainable manner.

For example, an environmentally-conscious product designer will consider how their product will interact with the environment before introducing it to the market. They will evaluate the product’s environmental impact as well as its economic and social impact. These considerations help ensure that the product or service is not only effective but sustainable as well.


The third principle of biomimicry is regenerate. This principle urges us to not only use nature as inspiration and to preserve it but to contribute to its growth and restoration. The idea is to create products and services that mimic natural systems, ultimately improving and restoring the environment.

For example, a designer may evaluate the way natural ecosystems create nutrients from waste. They could then create a new product that generates clean energy from waste products, thereby reducing pollution and contributing to the regeneration of the environment.

The principle of regeneration reframes our relationship with nature from one of dominance to one of partnership. We are no longer separate from nature, exploiting it, but rather collaborating with it to create a prosperous and sustainable future.


The principles of biomimicry provide a guide for creating sustainable solutions that embrace, regenerate, and mimic natural systems. These principles encourage us to work with nature rather than against it, creating a lasting and prosperous future for ourselves and the planet. By applying these principles, we can ensure that our creations are efficient, sustainable, and in line with the natural order of things.

How Biomimicry Can Influence Industry

Biomimicry is a concept that has gained a lot of attention in recent years. It is the practice of looking to nature for inspiration in solving problems and designing new technologies. When applied to industry practices, biomimicry can have a significant impact on sustainability and innovation. Here are five ways how biomimicry can influence industry:

1. Sustainable Materials

One way biomimicry can influence industry is by inspiring the development of sustainable materials. Nature has already developed materials that are strong, lightweight, and durable, and by studying these materials, scientists can replicate them in the lab. For example, spider silk is an incredibly strong and flexible material that is being studied for its potential use in manufacturing more eco-friendly textiles and medical devices.

2. Energy Efficiency

Nature is incredibly efficient at using energy, and by studying the ways in which plants and animals function, scientists can develop more energy-efficient technologies. For example, the study of photosynthesis has led to the development of solar panels that are more efficient at converting sunlight into energy.

3. Waste Reduction

Nature operates on a zero-waste model, and by studying how organisms use and reuse resources, scientists can develop more sustainable production methods. For example, some companies are studying how bacteria break down waste materials in order to develop more efficient waste management systems.

4. Product Design

Biomimicry can also influence the design of products. Nature has found efficient and effective solutions to many of the problems that humans face, and by studying these solutions, designers can create products that are more sustainable and user-friendly. For example, the design of a bullet train in Japan was inspired by the beak of a kingfisher bird, which allows the bird to enter the water without creating a splash.

5. Collaboration and Innovation

Biomimicry encourages collaboration and innovation across different industries. By bringing together biologists, engineers, designers, and business professionals, new ideas and solutions can be developed that are more sustainable and effective. For example, the Biomimicry Institute brings together scientists and business professionals to develop ideas for sustainable product design.

In conclusion, biomimicry has the potential to revolutionize industry practices and lead to more sustainable and eco-friendly technologies and products. By looking to nature for inspiration, scientists and designers can develop solutions that are efficient, effective, and in harmony with the natural world.

The Future of Biomimicry

Biomimicry is gaining more attention and recognition as a way to solve complex problems in a sustainable manner. The field of biomimicry draws inspiration from nature’s solutions and applies them to technological, social, and environmental problems. As we continue to face a variety of challenges, biomimicry has the potential to shape the future in a positive way. Here are some of the ways in which biomimicry is expected to influence the future:

1. Innovations in Material Sciences

Materials science is one of the fields that stands to benefit significantly from biomimicry. Nature is a master at creating materials that are lightweight, strong, and flexible, all at the same time. By studying the structural design of natural materials like spider silk, abalone shells, and butterfly wings, scientists can create new materials that have unique properties and applications. For instance, researchers are studying spider silk to create fabrics that are lighter and stronger than synthetic materials. As biomimicry continues to evolve, it could lead to the development of new materials that are more sustainable, durable, and cost-effective.

2. Sustainable Energy Solutions

Biomimicry holds much promise as a source of sustainable energy solutions. Nature has already developed efficient ways of harnessing and storing energy, whether it be through photosynthesis, bioluminescence, or other means. By observing and understanding these processes, we can create new technologies that capture and store energy more effectively. For example, scientists are studying the design of leaves to create more efficient solar cells that can convert sunlight into electricity. Biomimicry could also lead to the development of new battery technologies that are inspired by the way living organisms store energy.

3. Improved Agricultural Practices

The field of agriculture is another area where biomimicry has the potential to transform practices in a more sustainable direction. Scientists are studying the way that plants and animals interact with their environment to create more sustainable farming practices. For instance, they are investigating how different plants coexist and interact in nature to create more biodiverse and productive crop fields. Biomimicry could lead to the development of new farming techniques and technologies that are more regenerative, drought-resistant, and pest-resistant.

4. Enhanced Medical Technologies

Biomimicry is expected to drive innovation in the field of medical technology as well. Nature has evolved a remarkable array of biological systems that perform complex functions. By studying these systems, scientists can create new medical technologies that mimic the body’s own processes. For instance, researchers are studying the way that geckos climb walls to create adhesion technologies that can be used in surgical applications. Biomimicry could lead to the development of new diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and medical implants that are more efficient, less invasive, and more sustainable.

5. Sustainable Building Design

Biomimicry is already influencing the way that buildings are designed and constructed. Architects and engineers are studying the functional design of natural structures like termite mounds, bird nests, and trees to create more sustainable and efficient buildings. For instance, the Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe was designed to use passive cooling inspired by the way that termite mounds regulate temperature. Biomimicry could lead to the development of new building materials, designs, and technologies that use less energy, produce less waste, and have a smaller environmental footprint.

6. Increased Environmental Awareness

Biomimicry is not just a tool for innovation; it is also a way of thinking that can lead to a greater appreciation and understanding of the natural world. By studying and emulating nature’s designs, we can learn to work in harmony with the environment. Biomimicry can inspire people to think more deeply about our relationship with nature and the impact that our actions have on the planet. As more people become aware of the benefits of biomimicry, it could lead to increased conservation efforts, reduced waste, and a more sustainable way of life.

Biomimicry has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach innovation and sustainability. By drawing upon the wisdom of nature, we can create technologies, materials, and practices that are more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. As the field of biomimicry continues to evolve, it could lead to a world that is more in balance with nature and more resilient in the face of change.

Challenges Facing Biomimicry

Biomimicry, also known as biomimetics, is the practice of studying nature to find solutions to human problems. This approach has seen a surge in interest in recent years, as society struggles to find sustainable solutions to pressing issues such as climate change, food security, and renewable energy. However, despite the potential benefits of biomimicry, the approach is not without its challenges.

1. Need for More Research and Development

One of the primary challenges facing biomimicry is the need for more research and development. While nature offers a wealth of inspiration, translating this inspiration into practical solutions is not always straightforward. Often, researchers must spend years studying a natural system to fully understand its inner workings before they can apply the principles to human problems. Additionally, the process of developing biomimetic technologies can be expensive, which can be a barrier to innovation.

2. Intellectual Property Issues

Another challenge facing biomimicry is intellectual property issues. Many biomimetic technologies are based on natural systems, which are not owned by anyone. However, once a biomimetic technology has been developed and patented, it becomes a form of intellectual property. This can create conflicts between those who seek to use the technology for the public good and those who seek to profit from it. Additionally, there is a risk that patents could be used to stifle research and development in the field of biomimicry, if they are too broad or too restrictive.

3. Reluctance of Some Industries to Adopt New Approaches

Finally, the reluctance of some industries to adopt new approaches is a challenge facing biomimicry. Industries that have successfully operated in the same way for many years may be wary of new technologies that could disrupt their business model. Additionally, biomimetic technologies may require significant changes to existing infrastructure or processes, which can be costly and time-consuming.

Despite these challenges, biomimicry has the potential to offer solutions to some of the world’s most pressing problems. By studying and imitating nature, we can create technologies that are more efficient, sustainable, and resilient. However, to fully realize the potential of biomimicry, we must address the challenges facing the field and work to foster a culture of innovation and collaboration.

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